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To do any job accurately and expediently, a designer must have the proper tools. Tools are important in any work—whether it be surgery or carpentry, designing or drafting. Quality tools and equipment will also make drawing and drafting more enjoyable. Investing in good equipment for designing and drafting can benefit both students and professionals. The advent of computer-aided design and drafting, or commonly referred to as CAD, has reduced the need for much of the basic equipment described in the following pages. However, many students and professionals still prefer to draw manually in some situations, such as sketching initial design concepts or construction details. To this end, basic manual equipment and techniques are described in the next few chapters. A designer or draftsperson need not buy every piece of new equipment or software available. However, one should buy a new product if it will improve one’s work, both in quality and efficiency. Manufacturers often produce a range of models of varying quality. One can decide which model will produce the best effects in relation to the purchase price—sometimes not the top-of-the-line model. One should purchase tools and equipment of good quality, as they are an investment that will pay off throughout one’s career. Drawing Tables and Surfaces To produce quality drawings for interior design projects, it is necessary to establish a dedicated workplace. Designs can be drawn manually on a drawing board set on a tabletop surface, on a handmade drafting table, or on a ready-made drafting table. Or they can be drawn using computer drafting hardware and software that augments a drawing board or replaces it totally. In this chapter, commonly used manual drafting tables, equipment, and tools are discussed. For interior designers, a fairly large layout and drawing surface is needed most of the time. It is vital to have a drawing surface that will hold large presentation boards and standard sheets up to 24 x 36 inches (731 mm x 914 mm). Even larger sheets may be necessary for perspective drawings and full-size furniture drawings. A drawing board or table approximately 30 x 50 inches (762 mm x 1.27 m) should be obtained if possible. This would allow adequate space around the actual drawing sheet to place and maneuver the drawing tools and materials. Ready-made drafting tables are manufactured in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, materials, and prices. Some styles have an adjustable top and rest on four legs. Other models have a single or double pedestal base with a top that can be raised or low Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur

Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur ered according to the chair or stool height. This enables drafters to sit in a chair with a comfortable back and thus to work with less fatigue. The newer models also allow the top to tilt at various
angles for comfort. This allows the drafter to work whether sitting or standing. Space-saving folding tables are also produced, although they are not generally as sturdy as fixed models.
Manufactured tables have drawing surfaces that range in size from 30 x 48 inches (762 mm x 1.21 m) to 30 x 60 inches (762 mm x 1.52 m) and are usually made of wood or hardboard over a cellular
core. However, a wood drawing surface can become scored and grooved over time, which affects the drawing quality of the surface. It is best to cover the bare wood top with a protective finish such as plastic melamine or a vinyl drawing-board cover that gives a bit of resiliency and is easy to keep clean. The latter covering is often produced with an off-white and colored side. Which side to leave face up, is left to the individual. Drawing-board and table surfaces do not have to be manufactured, as a self-made surface can also be satisfactory and less expensive. For example, in a hollow core, the flush door can be supported on blocks or handmade legs made of 2 x 4 lumber with metal brackets. However, the height and angle that suits individual work habits must first be determined, as this type of drawing area will be fixed and not adjustable. Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur

Drawing Papers and Plastic Film

Interior design drawings can be produced on paper or plastic films. The quality of paper or film will help determine the quality of the line work. A variety of papers and plastic films are manufactured today in many standard sheet sizes and rolls. The choice of which to use is dependent upon the designer’s overall intent, office standards, and the intended method selected to make a copy from the original. Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur

Papers

Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur Drafting papers are made in a large variety of types, based on stability, translucency, permanence, strength, and cost. There are two basic categories: opaque and translucent. Opaque papers are
thicker than translucent ones and cannot be reproduced through methods such as the diazo printing process, which is being phased out. Therefore, they are not suitable for construction drawings that are to be copied in this manner. They are more suitable for plotting directly from a computer (in single sheets or rolls) and for concept and presentation drawings, as they are available in a variety of colors. Some opaque papers are made smooth on one side and rough on the other. The smooth side is more appropriate for inking and the rough side is for pencil drawings. Most papers will accept ink or pencil. However, the quality of their application and possible bleed-through varies according to the composition of the paper and its thickness. Translucent papers, such as tracing paper and vellum, are used for drawings that are to be reproduced through the diazo process. Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur However, they can also be reproduced photostatically. Tracing paper is generally a natural, untreated translucent paper. It is used primarily for exploratory ideas and sketches. It is commonly sold in inexpensive rolls (in white or yellow shades) and is called “trace,” “trash,” “flimsy,” or “bum wad.” It is fairly strong and durable, but not as transparent as vellums and will not produce line work as crisp and clear as vellums. Vellum is a translucent tracing paper that is treated to improve

strength, surface texture, and transparency. Vellums have a high rag content that gives them strength so they can withstand erasing. Vellum is sold in rolls or standard sheet sizes and can be used for hand or computer drafting. Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur

Pencils, Leads, and Pens Pencils

Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur are one of the most basic and primary drawing tools of professional designers. There are three basic types of pencils available to a designer for producing quality drawings. The selection is a matter of preference and the particular level of performance needed by the user. Wood-cased pencil. The oldest manufactured pencil is of wood with
a lead encased inside. It is seldom used for repetitive work in today’s offices, yet is still a reliable tool for occasional use for convenience and when pencil line control is needed. To expose the lead, the wood shell is cut away by a draftsman’s pencil sharpener. However, the sharpener only cuts the wood and does not touch the lead. To “point” the lead, the designer can use a lead pointer,
which forms the lead into a conical point. Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur If a wedge point is desired, rubbing the lead on sandpaper can form it. Wood-cased pencils come in a variety of different lead weights, ranging from

Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur 9H (extremely hard) to 6B (extremely soft). These leads are explained later in this chapter. Traditional lead holder. This type of mechanical pencil is made of metal or plastic, with special individual leads inserted in a permanent holder. Different lead weights may be inserted to produce a variety of sharp line weights. Pencil leads are graded from 9H (hard) to F (firm) to 6B (soft). Beginners should sharpen the point frequently for a clear, sharp line until they develop the ability to rotate the pencil while drawing to wear the point more evenly. The lead is sharpened by rubbing and rotating on sandpaper, on regular paper, or in a special mechanical lead pointer. When using sandpaper to sharpen the lead, it should be slanted at a low angle to achieve a good taper and point. Fine-line mechanical pencil. This type of mechanical pencil does not require sharpening and is loaded with multiple leads of the same diameter and hardness. The pencil generally is made to hold 0.3-, 0.5-, 0.7-, or 0.9-mm diameter lead. The size of the lead determines the line width. This type of pencil is also generally rotated while drawing and is capable of producing consistently sharp, Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur clean lines. Like the traditional lead holder, the mechanical pencil offers the convenience of a steady supply of lead, as the leads are inserted in the bottom of the holder and pushed out the tip by pressing a button on the end of the pencil. It is the most widely used pencil in today’s schools and offices for sketching, note-taking, and even drafting. Leads. A variety of leads are available for both wood and mechanical pencils. Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur Leads used on tracing paper and drafting paper are composed of graphite. Leads range in grades from 9H (extremely hard) to 6B (extremely soft), see Table 2-2. The softer the lead, the darker the image or line it will produce. For most drafting work, where clean, crisp lines are necessary, H and 2H leads are used. For sketching, softer leads are better, such as F and HB. Very soft leads, such as the B grades, are best for pencil renderings and shadowing work. For light, preliminary layout work, 3H and 4H leads are best. Generally, the more “tooth” or roughness a paper has, the harder the lead should be. Also, the harder the drawing surface, the softer the lead feels. If you are in high humidity conditions, the apparent hardness of the lead tends to increase. As noted before, there are special plastic-leaded pencils available for drawing on plastic drafting film. These plastic leads are available in five grades of hardness, ranging from E1 (soft) to E5 (super hard). Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur They are water-resistant and bond well to plastic film. A vinyl eraser is also available for use with these special leads. Pens. Some designers prefer ink and use a technical fountain pen, as it is capable of precise line width. It can be used for both freehand and drafted ink drawings. As with drafting pencils, pens are available in a variety of forms and price ranges. However, most technical drawing pens consist of a tubular point, Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur which has an ink-flow-regulating wire inside it. The size of the tubular point is what determines the finished width. Standard widths of ink lines are measured according to a line-width code, such as .30/00, which means the line width is .30 mm or the American standard size of 00. Metric widths range from .13 to 2.0 mm, while the American Standard widths range from 000000 to 6. These sizes correspond to line-width designations developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and are coordinated with metric sizes. For a good starter pen set, a good range of point sizes would be 3 x 0 (.25 mm), 2 x 0 (.3 mm), 1 (.45 mm), and 3 (.80 mm). Technical pens that produce the same line widths are also produced with felt tips. These are less costly, however, their felt tips tend to wear out faster than the metal tips. An advantage to using ink, especially on plastic drafting film, is that it will last for several years longer than a pencil, Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur will not smudge, and will produce excellent reproductions. When using technical pens, remember to keep points screwed in securely to prevent the ink from clogging. Always replace the cap firmly after each use to keep the ink from drying, and store the pens with their points up when not in use. Use good waterproof, black drawing ink. Good nonclogging ink that is specially made for use in fountain pens and technical pens is the best choice. Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur

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Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur Parallel Bar, T-square, and Drafting Machines It is extremely important to make sure lines on design drawings and construction drawings are exactly straight and, when required, parallel. To make sure lines are straight in a horizontal, vertical, and angular direction, there are several tools available. The most common of these instruments is the T-square and parallel bar Another device, called a drafting machine is also sometimes used. T-square. A T-square consists of a straightedge with a headset at right angles that can be set flush against the edge of a drawing board or table. The head is generally very sturdy and immovable. T-squares come in different lengths to coordinate with various drawing board sizes. The most common sizes are 36 and 42 inches (.91 m x 1.06 m). They are available with opaque or transparent edges, the latter making it easier to see through to existing lines when spacing them by eye. To use a T-square, one holds it with one hand (usually the left) at the head so it can be moved into position and held in place while a line is drawn along the straightedge with the other hand. The T-square is inexpensive and portable, which makes it convenient for students. However, in modern practice, the T-square has been replaced by the parallel bar and the drafting machine, as they do not require a constant hand to steady the head. Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur Parallel bar. A parallel bar is attached by cleats and pulleys to a particular drawing surface. The bar moves up and down on thin wire that runs over pulleys inside the bar. When properly installed, the bar can be moved up and down the drawing board and always be parallel to the top of it. Parallel bars are available in a variety of lengths to fit different drawing board sizes. The parallel bar is easy to use. It permits the drafter to draw long horizontal lines and serve as a base for the placement of triangles and other instruments for precision drawing. Drafting machine. A drafting machine is a combination of several conventional drafting tools. It is fixed to the drawing board and consists of vertical and horizontal blades that serve as scales for linear measurement, eliminating the need for a triangle and T square for drawing vertical and horizontal lines. There is also a scale in angular degrees on the head that replaces the protractor. There are two basic types of drafting machines—the arm type and the track type. Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur The arm type has two arms that pivot in the center with a head at the end of the lower arm which is clamped to the top edge of the drafting table. The drafter moves the head up and down and right and left. The head and the scales on it remain parallel to their original setting. The track type has a horizontal track mounted to the top edge of the drafting table with a vertical track attached to it that slides left and right. The head with the scales on it is fastened to the vertical track and slides up and down. Drafting machines are available for right- or left-handed people. Right-handed people hold the head in place with the left hand. Left-handed people hold the head in their right hand with the scales facing the opposite direction. The scales on drafting machines can be set at angles by releasing a lock, pressing a release button, and turning the head. Frequently used angles, such as 30, 45, and 60 degrees have positive set points. Scales are available in several lengths, in either architectural or metric measurements. They are also available in either plastic or aluminum finishes. Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur

Triangles, Templates, and Compasses

Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur A variety of other drawing tools are available for constructing vertical or inclined lines as well as circles, curvilinear shapes not based on fixed-radius circular forms, and other special shapes, such as representations of furniture, plumbing fixtures, and other interior equipment and furnishings. Triangles. A triangle is a three-sided instrument used with the T square or parallel straightedge for drawing vertical and angular lines (Figure 2-6). The most common are 45-degree and 30/60- degree triangles, each named for the angles they form. A range of sizes is available, with a size of 8 or 10 inches (203 mm x 254 mm) being in the middle of the range. Their size is based on the length of the longest side of the right angle. It is best, to begin with, these; then larger and smaller sizes can be added as needed. For example, small triangles, such as 4 inches (101 mm), are useful for hand lettering and crosshatching small areas. Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur Adjustable triangles can be set for any angle from 0 to 45 degrees. The adjustable triangle is convenient for situations requiring a variety of sloping lines, such as for stairs or slanted ceilings. Some triangles are available with recessed edges for use when inking. This keeps the edge up off the paper so the ink doesn’t run under the triangle and become smeared. Triangles are available in clear (nonyellowing) or colored plastic. They are scratch-resistant and generally have good edge retention. They should not be used as cutting edge as they are easy to nick, and they must be used and stored carefully. Templates. Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur Templates are in prepunched patterns representing various shapes commonly used in interior design and architectural plans (Figure 2-7). Templates help to speed up the drafting process and aid in the production of accurate drawings. There are a variety of templates available, some of which are used regularly, while others are needed for special purposes only. Some templates are used to draw circles, squares, windows, doors, electrical symbols, plumbing fixtures, furnishings, and hundreds of other features. The circle template is a very basic and highly useful timesaving device for drawing accurate circles of various sizes as well as curves that are parts of circles. Circles range in size from 1⁄16 inch (1.58 mm) up to 2 inches (50.8 mm) in diameter. Ellipse templates come in similar sizes, but since ellipses vary from near flat to near circular, a series of templates may be needed for each size. How  Interior designer in Jaipur | Interior designing Company in Jaipur | Modular kitchen in Jaipur

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